Open Education Resources (OER)


the term Open Educational Resources (OER) was coined at UNESCO’s 2002 Forum on Open Courseware and designates “teaching, learning and research materials in any medium, digital or otherwise, that reside in the public domain or have been released under an open license that permits no-cost access, use, adaptation and redistribution by others with no or limited restrictions. Open licensing is built within the existing framework of intellectual property rights as defined by relevant international conventions and respects the authorship of the work”;

declaraciones internacionales relativas a...

“the right of everyone to education”; to provide quality basic education for all children, youth and adults;“to build a people-centred, inclusive and development-oriented Information Society where everyone can create, access, utilize and share information and knowledge”;the Promotion and Use of Multilingualism and Universal Access to Cyberspace;Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expression;the rights of persons with disabilities to education;the fundamental role of Adult Learning and Education.

Noting that Open Educational Resources (OER) promote the aims of the international statements quoted above; la 2012 PARIS OER DECLARATION recommends that States, within their capacities and authority:

a. Foster awareness and use of OER (Promote and use OER to widen access to education at all levels, both formal and non-formal, in a perspective of lifelong learning, thus contributing to social inclusion, gender equity and special needs education. Improve both cost-efficiency and quality of teaching and learning outcomes through greater use of OER)

b. Facilitate enabling environments for use of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT).Bridge the digital divide by developing adequate infrastructure, in particular, affordable broadband connectivity,
widespread mobile technology and reliable electrical power supply. Improve media and information literacy and encourage the development and use of OER in open standard digital formats.

c. Reinforce the development of strategies and policies on OER. Promote the development of specific policies for the production and use of OER within wider strategies for advancing education.

d. Promote the understanding and use of open licensing frameworks. Facilitate the re-use, revision, remixing and redistribution of educational materials across the world through open licensing, which refers to a range of frameworks that allow different kinds of uses, while respecting the rights of any copyright holder.

e. Support capacity building for the sustainable development of quality learning materials. Support institutions, train and motivate teachers and other personnel to produce and share high-quality, accessible educational resources, taking into account local needs and the full diversity of learners. Promote quality assurance and peer review of OER. Encourage the development of mechanisms for the assessment and certification of learning outcomes achieved through OER.

f. Foster strategic alliances for OER. Take advantage of evolving technology to create opportunities for sharing materials which have been released under an open license in diverse media and ensure sustainability through new strategic partnerships within and among the education, industry, library, media and telecommunications sectors.

g. Encourage the development and adaptation of OER in a variety of languages and cultural contexts. Favour the production and use of OER in local languages and diverse cultural contexts to ensure their relevance and accessibility. Intergovernmental organisations should encourage the sharing of OER across languages and cultures, respecting indigenous knowledge and rights.

h. Encourage research on OER. Foster research on the development, use, evaluation and re-contextualisation of OER as well as on the opportunities and challenges they present, and their impact on the quality and cost-efficiency of teaching and learning in order to strengthen the evidence base for public investment in OER.

i. Facilitate finding, retrieving and sharing of OER. Encourage the development of user-friendly tools to locate and retrieve OER that are specific and relevant to particular needs. Adopt appropriate open standards to ensure interoperability and to facilitate the use of OER in diverse media.

j. Encourage the open licensing of educational materials produced with public funds. Governments/competent authorities can create substantial benefits for their citizens by ensuring that educational materials developed with public funds be made available under open licenses (with any restrictions they deem necessary) in order to maximize the impact of the investment.


UNESCO/Commonwealth of Learning OER Policy Guidelines


One of the best examples of OERs is the MIT OpenCourseWare project, which makes the course materials from nearly all MIT courses free and available online.  The World Bank has recently launched the Open Knowledge Repository, an online collection of World Bank publications released under Creative Commons licensing. Through the repository, their research and reports are published online for educators, researchers and students around the world.




1.-Learning Spaces  (

Try over 600 free online courses from The Open University.

Available from introductory to advanced level, each takes between 1 and 50 hours to study.

Complete activities to assess your progress and compare your thoughts with sample answers.

Sign up for free to track your progress, connect with other learners in our discussion forums and find the tools to help you learn.

Read more in Getting started.


Arts and Humanities  
Business and Management  
Childhood and Youth  
Computing and ICT  
Engineering and Technology  
Environment, Development and International Studies  
Health and Social Care  
Mathematics and Statistics  

Social Science


Guidelines for Open Educational Resources (OER) in Higher Education    Unesco

Athabasca University
Canadas open University

OpenLearn The Open University  (la universidad virtual para pequeños estados de la COMMONWEALTH), 11 millones de usuarios, eBooks interactivos

The Open Educational resource University

2.- Open content licensing for educators (

Commonwealth of Learning. Learning for Development  ¡¡¡¡¡¡


Open content licensing for educators is a free online workshop designed for educators and students who want to learn more about open education resources, copyright, and creative commons licenses ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡

The course materials were developed as a collaborative project by volunteers from the OER Foundation, WikiEducator, the OpenCourseWare Consortium and Creative Commons with funding support from UNESCO. The course will provide prerequisite knowledge required by educators to legally remix open education materials and help institutions to take informed decisions about open content licenses.

This free workshop is sponsored by the OER Foundation, the COL Chair in OER at Otago Polytechnic, the UNESCO-COL Chair in OER at Athabasca University and Creative Commons Canada.

The workshop is scheduled for 20 June - 3 July 2012. to coincide with the UNESCO World OER Congress in Paris.

Participants will need approximately 1 hour for each session of the workshop at a time which suits your own schedule. The workshop is divided into 5 sessions each spanning two working days.