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In 1956, Benjamin Bloom edited the text titled Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
(Bloom, 1956) establishing a taxonomy or classification system for levels of student thinking. In
2001, Anderson and Krathwohl suggested revisions and redefined the levels as Remember,
Understand, Apply, Analyze, Evaluate, and Create. The revised version identifies cognitive
processes under each level to clarify the level of thinking. The revised Bloom’s taxonomy
includes nineteen cognitive processes classified in six levels. These Bloom’s levels and cognitive
processes are described below as well as examples of student tasks that align to each cognitive
process are profiled. To show ways to naturally integrate technology, these examples showcase
technology tools used to support critical thinking at each level.
Level 1: Remember
The first level of the taxonomy is Remember. At the Remember level, learners must
recover information previously memorized. While a low-level thinking process, memorizing
information is important for higher-level thinking. For example, knowing the types of rocks can
help students analyze problems with rock formations, a higher-level thinking skill. There are
two cognitive processes within the Remember level: Recognizing and Recalling. Recognizing
involves students selecting the correct memorized answer from answer choices provided, like in
a multiple-choice test. When Recalling, students have to bring forth from their memory the
correct memorized answer as required in a fill-in-the-blank question.
Using Study Stack, an online set of cards, practice defining words and then checking the
Create a set of word cards and definitions based on textbook information on Quizlet.
Level 2: Understand
While Remember-level thinking is critical for establishing foundational concepts,
information that is not processed at deeper levels can be forgotten. At the Understand level,
students are establishing new connections with the content. There are seven cognitive processes
associated with the Understand level including: Interpreting, Exemplifying, Classifying,
Summarizing, Inferring, Comparing, and Explaining.
When Interpreting, students convert information from one form to another whether it might mean
changing text into paraphrases, pictures, graphics, or music.
Text to Pictures: Using Scratch, an online drawing program, create a picture that depicts
what is happening in the novel at this point.
Text to Music: Use Garage Band, an online program music program, make a song
describing one of the key terms for this unit.
High-Tech Critical Thinking
Text to Paraphrase: Paraphrase a reading in a Skype conversation with a student from
Pictures or Graphic to Text: Use Vocaroo or Google Talk, online voice recording
programs, to describe a data chart.
With Exemplifying, students are requested to offer another example of a concept. These
examples may include connections to other content areas or prior experiences.
Using a web search engine, find another example of a painting that shows texture.
Find a picture showing Newton’s first law in action and use Audioboo to record your
explanation of how it represents the first law
When students classify, they categorize information or items based on similar characteristics.
Students can group information into headings based on their common attributes.
In groups, select ten quotes from a character in a book. Using Padlet, an online
collaborative board, post the quotes and move the quotes around creating headings
showing key attributes of the character.
Using the interactive white board, group math equations into categories based on the
basic number properties (e.g., associative property, distributive property).